The Effect of a Force
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The Effect of a Force

Forces affect objects in many ways. These can be categorized into two: Change in shape and change in motion. In fact, forces cannot be seen but can only be inferred through the effects that they manifest. One of the most thrilling experiences you can get from riding a roller coaster is momentarily upside down, without falling out.
Theory: According to Newton's first law of motion, an object at rest tends to remain at rest, and an object in motion tends to continue its motion at constant speed in a straight line, unless acted upon by an external force. This tendency of matter to resist any change in its state of motion is called inertia. A force that acts to a moving body travel in a circle is known as centripetal force. The centripetal force acting to make the roller coaster travel around the loop is the mechanical force exerted by the rails. Without centripetal force, the roller coaster or any object would fly away in a straight line. On the contrary, you are firmly pushed against your seat as the car moves steadily around the looped track. What pushes you up against the set and keeps you from falling out is known as centrifugal force - the same kind of force that governs the motion and shape of astronomical bodies such as the Earth. Objectives: a) To know the different forces and how they affect objects. b) To know what makes a revolving body take a circular orbit. Materials: Ball or marble, magnet, balloon, plastic ball, plastic tube or empty ball pen, string, lead washers, iron ball bearing. Procedure: Part A. 1. Throw a ball up as high as you can. 2. Roll the ball by giving it a push. 3. Get an iron ball bearing and place it on top of cardboard box. Place the magnet under. Record your observation. 4. Inflate a balloon, then let it go free to release the air. What happens to the balloon? What force caused the balloon to move? Part B. 1. Assemble the materials as illustrated by your professor. At the said position, the weight of the lead washers pulls the plastic ball and causes it to accelerate, as thought it is falling towards the washers. 2. Place the ball pen in a vertical position and start whirling the plastic ball by giving the ball pen a stirring like motion. As the plastic ball takes a circular orbit, there will come a point where the revolving ball balances the pull of the weight of the lead washers. Questions and Problems: 1. What happens to the ball bearing as you move the magnet? 2. What happens to the balloon? 3. What do you call the force caused by the weight of the washer? 4. What do you call the force caused by the inertia of the revolving ball? 5. Is it correct to say that the ball is continuously falling towards the washer but never reaching it? 6. Calculate the force needed to hold a 1,000 lb car on an inclined plane that makes an angle of 30 degrees with the horizontal, if the force is to be parallel to the incline. 7. A 1,000 kg car is parked on an uphill road. If the inclination of the hill is 30 degrees, what are the forces acting on the car due to its weight? ANSWERS/SOLUTIONS:

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