Open and Closed Loop Systems in NumeriK Control Systems to Monitor Efficacy of Air Craft Operating Parameters
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Open and Closed Loop Systems in NumeriK Control Systems to Monitor Efficacy of Air Craft Operating Parameters

Modern airliners have complex avionic systems. These need to be monitored for proper efficacy. This is done by Numerik Control systems called open and closed loops. These are important because of the power electronic on board. The open and closed loops systems help compare the operating parameters of the aircraft

A modern aircraft  has multiple systems on board to operate the aircraft. These systems are complex and cannot be monitered with the human eye, but at the same time these systems need to be monitored for optimum evaluation of the flight of an aeroplane. One of the systems for  monitoring the performance of operating  parameters of an large aircraft is the ‘open’ and ‘closed’  loop systems.   These systems are often referred to as  Numerik Control Systems (CNC). 

 There are two types of CNC ( Computer Numerik Control) systems. these systems help moitor the efficacy of the aircraft in flight where its  engines generally operate at a frequency of 400 hertz. 

  ‘Open loop’ operating  system means that the  controller system and the motor have a one way interaction.  However the output of the motors is monitored  through a 'closed loop'.   The closed loop corrects errors  in position, velocity, and acceleration, thus giving a graphic feedback on the operating system and its efficacy.

Diagram of an Open Loop system

 Diagram of a Closed Loop System

  The engine starts from cold and when it achieves a rpm of 400  hertz, the system  goes into ‘open loop’. 

The system will stay in 'Open Loop'  till the undermentioned conditions are achieved.

1.     The  Coolant Sensor has achieved a temperature of  40oC/104oF.

2.     After starting the engine from cold  a specified amount of time has elapsed.

3.     The operating temperature has risen to the required level.

Temperature in an  aircraft relates to the  servo mechanism on board and  air-conditioning along with the  power electronics. These need  thermal regulation and directly affect the open loop.  Thermal management in an aircraft is through a two way hot loop.

 The open and closed loop  are pivotal in steering the aircraft  accurately. When an aircraft is in flight an updated comparison between the actual and required direction is made. This allows for correction till he actual direction is  achieved. This is closed loop system and forms the  basis of all flight systems.

 The mem-cal stores the different specifications of engines.Once the required condition is  achieved the  aircraft systems go into 'Closed Loop' operation. Closed loop systems work out costlier and are also more complex.They are harder to tune and the failure rate is more.

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Comments (1)

Very informative and nicely composed write-up.